Comparison with RSK values (Richtwerte und Schwankungsbreiten bestimmter Kennzahlen, standard values and ranges of certain analytical characteristics [of fruit juices]) (21) may also be valuable and also states sodium ion levels may be variable. In 2016 some 45% of the UK supply of coconut water originated in Thailand (11). Figure 1 illustrates typical total sugar findings (the standard deviations of the data have been omitted for simplicity). The coconut fruit alone is a powerhouse of nutrients with a fleshy white part which can also be the source of milk and the refreshing coconut water. It is not usually prudent to regard a sample as adulterated when only some parameters do not fall within the values quoted in the second AIJN section. When faced with these shortages, physicians have had to improvise with the available resources, or simply do without. Disclaimer: The views expressed herein are entirely those of the authors. Although there were statistically significant differences between cultivars, the specific cultivars would not be known in detail by the ultimate consumers when purchasing retailed products. Although not ideal, it has been used direct from the coconut in extremis as a short-term intravenous hydration fluid (3, 4). The concentrations of free and total sulfur (IV) compounds in coconut water have been determined using high resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. The Wall Street Journal. Rehydrates As Effectively As Sports Drinks. Most plants can be classified according to their photosynthetic cycles as C3 or C4 depending on the number of carbon atoms in first molecules formed. It has only a third of the sodium—30 mg per 8 ounces—that traditional sports drinks contain. Units: g/100 mL and g/100 g assumed to be equivalent. According to Konan et al. Unlike other juices, unflavored coconut water is … Dec 24, 2020 (Heraldkeepers) -- Coconut water benefits and … Hence, it is important to determine their residues in coconut products to determine their fitness for consumption and compliance with established maximum residue levels. Coconut water contains a unique combination of B vitamins, vitamin C, micronutrients, and phytohormones that are exceptionally beneficial to your health. Coconut water is what is inside a young coconut. The inner part (endosperm) consists of a white kernel within which is a liquid, “coconut water”. The FAO guide gives harvesting and processing precautions to avoid contamination or spoilage and recommends several compositional standards (see below). Frozen strawberries are puréed in a blender with coconut cream, honey and rose water. The drupe envelope (mesocarp or husk), is extensively marketed after processing as rope, carpets, geotextiles and growing media (1). In a further detailed study of the effects of thermal processing (TP) versus HPCD of coconut water on its volatile components, 73 compounds were isolated and structures assigned to all but six of them by head space solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For example, Prades et al. It is also probably worth checking the concentrations of malic and citric acids, as the former is the major organic acid of coconut water and high levels of citric acid indicates an addition (58). The presence of free RNA in coconut water is known; to our knowledge PCR authenticity studies remain lacking, but may prove interesting. Each variety exhibits diverging characteristics including fragrance (7). (, Imaizumi V.M., Sartori M.M.P., Ducatti C., Venturini Filho W.G. The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content. Coconut water is a relatively low-calorie drink with far less sugar compared to many soft or fizzy drinks. showed good correlation between the data obtained by NMR, FTIR and GC-MS in a quality prediction study on the effects of L-ascorbic acid addition to micro-filtered coconut water (44). Hence although it is in our opinion more likely to be a risk of occurring in coconut milk, analysts should remain alert to the possibility and consider screening for milk protein, e.g., by ELISA (61). The FAO good practice guidelines mentioned above (22) for the application of “middle-level” technology, for the small-scale production of chilled bottled coconut water in St. Vincent and Jamaica gave physicochemical characteristics of pH (5–5.4) and Brix (5–6.5). The brand remained a laggard behind Vita Coco even as U.S. coconut water sales fell 22% to $528 million in 2019 from 2015, the Journal reported — citing data from Euromonitor International. Rev. The Council of the European Union (2001) Council Directive 2001/112/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to fruit juices and certain similar products intended for human consumption, (OJ L 010, 12.1. Coconut water is not water with coconut flavor added. Subsequent analysis of 24 coconut waters on the (presumably Austrian) retail market implied 38% contained undeclared exogenous C4 sugars. Coconut water is regarded as a juice and is subject to the general provisions of the Codex Alimentarius General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars (36), which sets general compositional, labelling and purity, including food additives, requirements. Stand-alone determination of the carbon stable isotope ratios of the bulk sample and/or of its component sugars will provide almost certain proof of adulteration with exogenous sugars if ratios significantly above around –21‰ are found. There are three varieties: Tall (C. nucifera var. (This is not to be confused with coconut milk, which is, well, milky in color and made by grinding and squeezing the flesh of a much older coconut.) Also present in trace amounts are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. While coconut water is an effective sports drink that suits the needs of many, it may not be the ultimate sports drink to feed all your needs. South America and Asia reportedly accounted for over 90% of world consumption to 2018 (6). Fat is made up of smaller molecules called fatty acids, and there are several types of saturated fatty acids in coconut oil. Sight of the local standards and AIJN reference guideline acceptability criteria for coconut water would be essential for any official analyst before issuing an adverse opinion against a sample of coconut water. (5), the three most popular cultivars worldwide in 2011 were West African Tall, Malaysian Yellow Dwarf and “PB121” Hybrid. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. A draft standard was then produced for packaged natural coconut water (41). The Codex Alimentarius standard for “aqueous coconut products” (35) refers only to coconut milk and coconut cream. (, FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius, Standard for Aqueous Coconut Products, Coconut Milk and Coconut Cream (CODEX STAN 240-2003), Codex Alimentarius, Rome, FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius, General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars (CODEX STAN 247-2005), Codex Alimentarius, Rome. Indeed in recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the UK and global demand for coconut water (9) due to its reputed potential as a sports drink and a natural isotonic drink (10). As the coconut matures, the liquid contains a bit more sugar and gets mostly absorbed into the meat of the coconut.Juvenile (also called tender coconut water) contains more anti-oxidants than mature coconut water. Sabapathy and Bawa in 2007 (40) noted that “mature” and “tender” coconut water contained 0.2 and 4.4% reducing sugars, respectively, and proposed minimum product quality requirements for preserved “tender” coconut water. (1) reported that the variation in total sugars in water from mature coconuts, from various varieties and origin, was in the range of 1.8–4.4 g/100 mL. Biol. Plant Physiol. Coconut water may also protect against myocardial infarction or heart attack . To provide a guide to establishing the authenticity and the potability of samples of coconut water. Coconut water is known to be adulterated by a variety of means (see Figure 2). (, Farquhar G.D., Ehleringer J.R., Hubick K.T. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Most commercial products are blends of coconut water from various undeclared sources including amounts of fragrant varieties (7) and in many cases without a statement about added sugar or other additives (18). The enzymes responsible cause enrichment of 13C to different extents, providing a means to differentiate C3 plant products such as coconut water from C4 plant products, such as cane sugar and maize derived syrups (49–51). The same research group applied 1H NMR and chemometrics to the problem of adulteration of coconut water with water–sugar mixtures. Coconut water has attracted religious symbolism in Asia, has reputed health benefits, contains phytohormones (auxin, cytokinins and gibberellins), has been investigated as a growth medium, and as biocatalyst for microorganisms and plants (1, 2). Coconut water can be distinguished from fruit juices and many soft drinks by its appearance (including turbidity), organoleptic qualities, lower soluble solids (°Brix), sugars profile, higher pH and lower acidity (Table 1 and Figure 1), taking due account of its potassium, L-malic and citric acid contents. The coconut fruit (strictly, a drupe) is well known and Cocos nucifera L., is regarded as an important and much-grown crop globally. A variety of processing methods are available for the production of stable products. This alone puts it well ahead of much of the competition, as you can be assured that it is free of pesticides and fertilizers. Annu. The method was shown to be statistically equivalent to a reference method and was applied to coconut water samples taken in Brazil (n = 5) with results between 13.0 and 55.4 mg/L for free sulfite and 24.7 and 66.9 mg/L for total sulfur (IV) compounds (47). One group (the control) received bottled drinking water, the second group received coconut water, the third received mauby and the fourth group, a mixture of coconut water and mauby. A report in 2016 cited Green Dwarf, King Coconut, Aromatic Green Dwarf (Nam Hom) and Chowgat Orange Dwarf as the most popular cultivars for coconut water consumption (6). Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC), Queen’s Road, Food Forensics: Stable Isotopes as a Guide to Authenticity and origin. TCW is the most nutritious healthy drink from a palm tree, is a natural isotonic drink that has content similar to our body's blood plasma 11 . Coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) is an ancien t tropical beverage whose popularity on the international market has been continuously increasing in recent years. The AIJN reference guideline seeks to define acceptability criteria for coconut “water”/coconut juice. Risks Further analytical investigations might involve Raman, FTIR or 1H NMR spectroscopy albeit access to chemometrics and a suitable database of authentic and non-authentic spectra will be necessary. Coconut water is practically sterile in the coconut and is widely consumed as a drink, prized for its delicate, albeit labile, flavor when fresh. In particular, carbon SIRMS is valuable in detecting exogenous sugars. Overall the AIJN sets a greater number of guideline parameters than the other standards cited above and although numerical values differ they are generally within the same order of magnitudes. Raman, FTIR or 1H NMR spectroscopy with chemometrics have been applied to investigate coconut water authenticity. Coconut oil contains no chole… The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) has been working on a reference guideline for coconut water. Richardson et al. The sugar concentrations in coconut water. It may also be possible to distinguish water from young coconuts from water from mature coconuts based on (a) their sucrose content, which increases at the expense of glucose and fructose as the fruit matures, and (b) the reducing sugars to total sugars ratio (Table 1). So coconut water is a type of juice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2017;27:279-284. By analogy with the work of Elfein and Raezke on honey (59) and given the protein content of coconut water the use of the carbon isotope ratio of the extracted protein as an internal standard would be worth experimental exploration. The results can be compared with the standards set out in Table 3, which may enable an opinion to be formed as to the authenticity of the sample. Coconut water is a liquid that is drained from the center of coconuts and then packaged and sold in stores. Michael Walker gratefully acknowledges part funding through the UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy as part of the Government Chemist Programme 2017–2020. Bold draws attention to data which may help to distinguish young from mature coconut water. Although it is tempting to suggest the lower data arise from a decimal point error equally divergent sodium data are seen elsewhere (15) (Na 15.5–1050 mg/kg) hence the most that can be said is that coconut water sodium ion concentrations are highly variable. The increase in its consumption (12) and potential for variation in composition in commercial products makes a review necessary of the likely problems that may arise in the confirmation of the authenticity and the potability of samples submitted for examination. The content of macro and micronutrients found in tender coconut water can lower lipids, protect the heart and liver 17, 18 . Coconut water is the clear liquid found in the center of a young coconut. This review summarizes the health benefits of Tender Coconut Water (TCW). (, Ferreira J.A., Ferreira J.M.S., Talamini V., de Fátima Facco J., Rizzetti T.M., Prestes O.D., Adaime M.B., Zanella R., Bottoli C.B.G. I… A straw was included and used for puncturing the coconut at the time of consumption ().Recommended storage was at 4°C–5°C in the refrigerator, but the coconut had been kept on the kitchen table for 1 month after purchase. In addition, coconut water does contain potassium. A FAO guide is available on good practice for the small-scale production of bottled coconut water in coconut growing areas (22). Over the years with a rise in lactose intolerance and veganism, coconuts have been enjoying quite the attention for being a healthy source of water, milk, cream, sugar, vinegar, and flour. These authors appear to have been the first to apply NMR combined with principal component analysis to the evaluation of the composition of coconut water and were able to quantify sucrose, α and β-glucose, fructose, ethanol, and malic acid. Suspicions of non-compliance might, at this stage, be further investigated by documentary checks and a review of the audits of the supply chain. Coconuts grow on large palm trees known scientifically as Cocos … (, Arunachalam V., Rajesh M.K. A variety of thermal and non-thermal processing methods have been explored (23, 24) in addition to the use of additives (such as L-ascorbic acid (25), potassium sorbate and sodium metabisulfite (26), citric acid, ascorbic acid, L-cysteine (27) and sodium sulfite (28)) to ensure products’ sterility and stability to enable long-term worldwide commercialization. Screening for milk protein should be considered albeit evidence for its inclusion in coconut water is sparse. High power ultrasound has been shown to be synergistic with HPCD in reduction of microbiological organisms (31). (52) applied this technique to coconut water including additional LC to separate individual sugars prior to SIRMS, finding the latter to improve the LOD for added C4 sugars. Abstract Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world’s most versatile natural product. Between 7-9 months, the sweetness of coconut water increases to its maximum when sugar content increases. Hence, PCR authenticity studies are, to our knowledge, lacking but may prove interesting should they be carried out. This requirement is reproduced in national standards, for example that of Bhutan (38). You can download the paper by clicking the button above. The guideline emphasizes that a valid conclusion regarding the authenticity of a particular sample can only be reached after expert interpretation of all the analytical data. (, Jackson J.C., Gordon A., Wizzard G., McCook K., Rolle R. (, Tan T.-C., Cheng L.-H., Bhat R., Rusul G., Easa A.M. (, Directive 2001/112/EC of 20 December 2001 on fruit juices and similar products, OJ L 010, 12.1.2002, 58, consolidated version of 05.10.2014, Annex V, Harold R.S.K., Sawyer R. Formol value: an approximate measure of the concentration of free amino acids, see for example Egan (, Purkayastha M.D., Kalita D., Mahnot N.K., Mahanta C.L., Mandal M., Chaudhuri M.K. EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notifications. Assumed <6 months old; data adapted from (14) and (16). Assumed to be 12 months old; data adapted from (1, 14, 16). It has fewer calories, less sodium, and more potassium than a sports drink. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. However, several local standards have been drafted. What Coconut Water Doesn’t Have Coconut water falls short when it comes to sodium content. typica), Dwarf (C. nucifera var. High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) treatment was found to produce microbial stability and preserve the nutritional and sensory attributes of coconut water (29). Stated 8–9 months (10), mean of three varieties, Dwarf, Tall and Hybrid, the standard deviations of the data were small. Data is presented on the variances in natural composition, maturity, processing-induced compositional changes, adulterations, product recalls, classical and instrumental methods of analysis and on the available composition standards of coconut water. Uses . These guidelines form part of the AIJN Code of Practice, which is available to subscribers only. Some companies add fruit juice or coffee to it. The use of pesticides appears essential to the productivity and preservation of coconut palms. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (32). Review and evaluate the literature on the factors that determine the composition and stability of coconut water. (16) (among others). However, no explicit compositional criteria are given therein. Total sugars (Brix) in coconut water as a function of cultivar and maturity, (Data from Jackson et al. (45) described Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics to assess potential adulteration of fresh coconut water by added sugars to conceal aqueous dilution. Coconut water extraction, formulation, processing and storage can also affect the flavour. The sulfite bound to organic compounds is released by addition of sodium hydroxide prior to generation of sulfur dioxide. An important general requirement that has significant bearing on market authenticity is that “For directly expressed fruit juices, the Brix level shall be that as expressed from the fruit and the soluble solids content of the single strength juice shall not be modified, except by blending with the juice of the same kind of fruit” (paragraph 3.1.1 (a) of the Standard (see also 37)). Validation of the Free Fatty Acid Test Kit for the Measurement of the Free Fatty Acid Content of Vegetable Oils, Fish Oils, Animal Fats (Tallows), Meat and Fish Meals, and Potato Chips and Grain-Based Snack Products: Multi-Frequency Ultrasonic Extraction of Anthocyanins from Blueberry Pomace and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Co-pigmentation of caffeic acid and catechin on wine color and the effect of ultrasound in model wine solutions, Screening of 154 Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods of Animal Origin Using LC-MS/MS, First Action 2020.04, Natural Sugar composition and other variances, https://www.cbi.eu/market-information/processed-fruit-vegetables-edible-nuts/coconut-water/europe, http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-world-leaders-in-coconut-production, https://www.beveragedaily.com/Article/2014/04/15/Vita-Coco-Strong-UK-rival-can-help-build-250m-coconut-water-category, https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/soft-drinks/infographic-the-uk-coconut-water-market-at-a-glance/541126.article, https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/buying-and-supplying/categories/soft-drinks/infographic-the-uk-coconut-water-market-at-a-glance/541126.article, https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/buying-and-supplying/categories/soft-drinks/fsa-probe-finds-widespread-addition-of-undeclared-sugar-in-coconut-water/558787.article#commentsJump, http://ititropicals.com/young-coconuts-versus-mature-coconuts-the-facts/, https://ititropicals.com/wp-content/uploads/iTi-White-Paper-on-Added-Sugars-and-Other-Ingredients-to-Coconut-Water.pdf, https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/rasff_en, http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2001/112/2014-10-05, http://www.bafps.da.gov.ph/images/Approved_Philippine_Standards/PNS-BAFS28-2006-BukoJuice.pdf, https://law.resource.org/pub/crs/ibr/cc.crs.3.2010.pdf, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, 100% buko juice refers to unmodified natural aqueous liquid of 6–9-month-old coconut, Buko juice with the addition of potable water (not more than 20%) ± permitted sweeteners, Undiluted natural untreated clear liquid endosperm of the coconut, harvested 7–9 months after pollination (no solid endosperm), Natural aqueous liquid endosperm of the 5–6-month-old coconut, without addition of solid endosperm, Natural aqueous liquid endosperm of the 12-month-old coconut, without addition of solid endosperm, Nisin (to a limit prescribed in Indian law). 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