Fish and Wildlife Service. The biggest challenge is not only locating their natural or protected habitat and co-ordinating with people that can lead you to their sites, but to time your visit to capture the plant’s bloom. 38-46). The determination that it would not be prudent to designate critical habitat for Tobusch fishhook cactus that was made at the time the plant was listed as an endangered species remains true (44 FR 64737, November 7, 1979). Pris: 192,-. heftet, 2018. 11-12). 12/30/2020, 867 The subspecies' distribution within habitat patches is clumped and tends to be farther from woody plant cover (Reemts 2014, pp. Federal agencies are required to consult with the Service under section 7 of the Act in the event that activities they authorize, fund, or carry out may affect Tobusch fishhook cactus. tobuschii; currently listed as Ancistrocactus tobuschii), from endangered to threatened on the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants. Open for Comment, Certain Employee Remuneration in Excess of $1,000,000, Economic Sanctions & Foreign Assets Control, Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Certain Walk-Behind Lawn Mowers and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China, Promoting Beautiful Federal Civic Architecture, Final Tobusch Fishhook Cactus Species Status Assessment, Tobusch Fishhook Cactus Species Status Assessment. 1997, pp. Periodic outbreaks of insect parasitism appear to be an unavoidable natural cycle that may exacerbate population declines from other causes, and currently there are no management practices to prevent or minimize insect parasitism. We concur with these comments. Love Creek Preserve, Texas: Detail of the endangered Tobusch Fishhook cactus (Ancistrocactus tobuschii.) We know that insect parasites are a major cause of mortality and may naturally reduce populations to low densities. Halictid bees are frequent natural pollinators of Tobusch fishhook cactus. In addition to population size, it is likely that population density within metapopulations also influences population viability; density must be high enough for gene flow within metapopulations, but low enough to minimize parasite infestations. One measure of population resilience is minimum viable population (MVP), which is an estimate of the minimum population size that has a high probability of enduring a specified period of time. We therefore do not need to conduct an analysis of whether there is any significant portion of its range where the species is in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to reclassify the Tobusch fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp. documents in the last year, 351 This species is also known by the following name(s): Sclerocactus brevihamatus var. One peer reviewer of the SSA stated that the general approach we used to estimate the total number of plants was sound, but because the areas surveyed were a biased sample of potential habitats, our approach likely overestimated the amount of potential habitat and population size. The means of 30 climate models project increasing temperatures for the Edwards Plateau of Texas over the 2050 to 2074 projection period (U.S. Geological Survey 2015). 12/30/2020, 394 Soils are classified in the Tarrant, Ector, Eckrant, and similar series. (2) Comment: The reclassification of Tobusch fishhook cactus is fully supported; however, the downlisting should also exempt the subspecies from the take prohibition of the Act. 42-45). 6-7; Langley 2015, pp. Our Response: The Act does not prohibit the taking of either endangered or threatened plant species that occur on private lands. Be sure to leave feedback using the 'Feedback' button on the bottom right of each page! 58-61). When listed under the ESA in 1979, fewer than 200 plants were known to exist. New Documents Recovery plans are not regulatory documents; instead they are intended to establish goals for long-term conservation of listed species and define criteria that are designed to indicate when the threats facing a species have been removed or reduced to such an extent that the species may no longer need the protections of the Act, as well as actions that may be employed to achieve reaching the criteria. Section 4(f) of the Act directs us to develop and implement recovery plans for the conservation and survival of endangered and threatened species unless we determine that such a plan will not promote the conservation of the species. We officially accept the new scientific name of Tobusch fishhook cactus as Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp. tobuschii is endemic to limestone outcrops of the Edwards Plateau, while S. brevihamatus ssp. the material on FederalRegister.gov is accurately displayed, consistent with Given the predominance of private land ownership patterns for Tobusch fishhook cactus habitats, collection still may become a threat in the foreseeable future. Contact: Michael Robinson, (575) 313-7017, michaelr@biologicaldiversity.org, Another Endangered Species Act Success Story for 2016: Texas' Tobusch Fishhook Cactus Downlisted From Endangered to Threatened, More Endangered Species Found to Be Partially or Fully Recovered in 2016 Than Any Year Since Endangered Species Act Passed in 1973. However, recent phylogenetic evidence supports classifying Tobusch fishhook cactus as subspecies tobuschii of Sclerocactus brevihamatus (Porter and Prince 2011, pp. Our analysis indicates that Tobusch fishhook cactus is likely to continue to be negatively affected by factors such as changes in vegetation and wildfire frequency, infection from parasites, feral hog rooting, and the demographic and genetic consequences of small population sizes (see discussion under Reclassification Analysis below). Love Creek Preserve, Texas: Detail of the endangered Tobusch Fishhook cactus (Ancistrocactus tobuschii. - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Sales: 0800-389-2041 documents in the last year, 659 Nevertheless, even where individual colonies have collapsed, the total documented population sizes at many protected natural areas are stable or increasing, due to discoveries of new individuals and colonies. Tobush Fishhook Cactus Share in my adventurous journey of finding the plants that are rare and endangered and creating their portraits. The subspecies persists but requires continued management, conservation, and protection under the Act to fully alleviate these threats. 4321 et seq. Mammals or birds may also accomplish longer distance seed dispersal (Emmett 1995, pp. Found in oak woodland savannahs of the Edwards Plateau in central Texas, the cactus faces ongoing threats from livestock grazing, urban sprawl, loss of … The distance between colonies has two opposing effects on their persistence. In addition, the Act prohibits malicious damage or destruction of any such species on any area under Federal jurisdiction, and the removal, cutting, digging up, or damaging or destroying of any such species on any other area in knowing violation of any State law or regulation, or in the course of any violation of a State criminal trespass law. Regulations implementing this interagency cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR part 402. documents in the last year, 73 | The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify the primary sugars in … We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial information available regarding the past, present, and future threats to Tobusch fishhook cactus. ), need not be prepared in connection with listing a species as an endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Start Printed Page 22395Given that insect parasites are able to devastate large, dense populations, a few large populations are much more vulnerable than many small populations. We used the best available scientific and commercial data to analyze individual, population, and subspecies requirements, as well as factors affecting the subspecies' survival and its current conditions, to assess the current and future viability of Tobusch fishhook cactus in terms of resilience, redundancy, and representation. Despite low levels of genetic differentiation, the same study found evidence of substantial gene flow among Tobusch fishhook cactus populations and healthy levels of outbreeding, with a mean inbreeding coefficient (FIS) of 0.38 (range of 0.15 to 0.63) for ssp. documents in the last year, 29 On January 5, 2010, a status review (“5-year review”) was completed under section 4(c)(2)(A) of the Act, which recommended that Tobusch fishhook cactus be reclassified from endangered to threatened (Service 2010). Recovery plans identify site-specific management actions that will achieve recovery of the species, measurable criteria that set a trigger for review of the species' status, and estimates of the time and cost to recovery. See, e.g., SPR Policy, 79 FR at 37580-81. The following is a summary of our results and conclusions. 449, 454-455). Genetic drift may also cause the loss of genetic diversity in small populations. Fishhook cactus is a common name for any hook-spined species of the genera Mammillaria, Echinomastus or Sclerocactus.They are small cacti, usually growing up to 6-7 inches (20 cm) high, and are shaped similar to a barrel cactus.They are not to be confused with the fishhook barrel cactus (Ferocactus wislizenii) of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts.The Fishhook cactus is a large … It sports yellow flowers that attract pollinators, but takes nine years of growing before it is reproductively mature. Populations of Tobusch fishhook cactus are now confirmed in eight central Texas counties: Bandera, Edwards, Kerr, Kimble, Kinney, Real, Uvalde, and Val Verde. As its name suggests, it is armed with curved “fishhook” spines. Resilient populations are those that exhibit stable or increasing demographic trends. The loss of genetic diversity is likely to cause a loss of fitness and lower chance of survival of populations and of the subspecies. Counts are subject to sampling, reprocessing and revision (up or down) throughout the day. Please refer to section IV of the SSA Report for a more detailed discussion of the factors affecting Tobusch fishhook cactus (Service 2016, pp. Eleven species were found to have recovered in 2016, including another Texas plant, called the Johnston’s frankenia; four subspecies of island fox from the Channel Islands; two humpback whale populations; Kentucky’s white-haired goldenrod; Santa Cruz cypress; and Columbian white-tailed deer. We did not receive comments from other Federal agencies or Tribes. The final policy includes four elements: (1) If a species is found to be endangered or threatened throughout a significant portion of its range, the entire species is listed as an endangered species or a threatened species, respectively, and the Act's protections apply to all individuals of the species wherever found; (2) a portion of the range of a species is “significant” if the species is not currently endangered or threatened throughout all of its range, but the portion's contribution to the viability of the species is so important that, without the members in that portion, the species would be in danger of extinction, or likely to become so in the foreseeable future, throughout all of its range; (3) the range of a species is considered to be the general geographical area within which that species can be found at the time the Service or the National Marine Fisheries Service makes any particular status determination; and (4) if a vertebrate species is endangered or threatened throughout an SPR, and the population in that significant portion is a valid DPS, we will list the DPS rather than the entire taxonomic species or subspecies. documents in the last year, by the Federal Communications Commission Although Start Printed Page 22394the term is conceptually simple, it may be difficult to determine the extent of a population of rare or cryptic species, and this is certainly the case for Tobusch fishhook cactus. The demographic consequences of small population size are compounded by genetic consequences, because reduced out-crossing corresponds to increased inbreeding. For a complete discussion of all threats, including those considered significant at the time of listing and those considered potential future threats, please refer to the SSA Report (Service 2016). Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin Ecological Services Field Office, 10711 Burnet Road, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78727; telephone 512-490-0057; facsimile 512-490-0974. The taxonomic classifications of Tobusch fishhook cactus include several published synonyms. Best says the cactus was first discovered in 1951 in the Edwards Plateau, or Hill Country of Central Texas. whose larvae feeds upon the cactus. daily Federal Register on FederalRegister.gov will remain an unofficial Feral hog populations remain undiminished in Texas despite active hunting and trapping efforts. Please let us know if you are interested in participating in recovery efforts for Tobusch fishhook cactus. Conversely, since the parasites are flightless, smaller, widely dispersed colonies may be less susceptible to parasite infestation. documents in the last year, by the International Trade Administration We also contacted appropriate Federal and State agencies, scientific experts and organizations, and other interested parties and invited them to comment on the proposal. The recovery of many listed species cannot be accomplished solely on Federal lands because their range may occur primarily or solely on non-Federal lands. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed today to downlist the Tobusch fishhook cactus from endangered to threatened, reflecting protection and recovery of the tiny, spiny plant guided by the Endangered Species Act. If we determine that the species is in danger of extinction, or likely to become so in the foreseeable future, throughout all of its range, we list the species as an endangered (or threatened) species and no SPR analysis is required. These results indicate relatively low levels of genetic differentiation among the nine populations; however, this situation is not unusual for endemic taxa and may also indicate a recent divergence of subspecies tobuschii from subspecies brevihamatus. Second, low genetic diversity within interbreeding populations leads to a higher incidence of inbreeding, and potentially to inbreeding depression (reduced biological fitness), which lowers a population's ability to survive and reproduce. Juniper trees that were formerly limited by relatively frequent wildfires have now greatly increased in abundance and cover, and the proportion of ground that is shaded has increased. AUSTIN, Texas— The U.S. Adam Zerrenner, Field Supervisor, U.S. include documents scheduled for later issues, at the request First, diversity within populations should confer greater resistance to pathogens and parasites and greater adaptability to environmental stochasticity (random variations, such as annual rainfall and temperature patterns) and the effects from climate change. However, these models do not simulate well the projected patterns of regional precipitation (IPCC 2013, p. 11). In the wild, this globose or columnar cactus rarely exceeds 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter and in height (Poole and Janssen 2002, p. 7). A major cause of mortality is infestation by insect larvae, mainly by an undescribed species of Gerstaeckeria (cactus weevil), and one or more species of cactus longhorn beetles (Moneilema spp.). This information is not part of the official Federal Register document. We, the U.S. This prototype edition of the In our policy, we interpret the phrase “significant portion of its range” in the Act's definitions of “endangered species” and “threatened species” to provide an independent basis for listing a species in its entirety; thus there are two situations (or factual bases) under which a species would qualify for listing: A species may be in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future throughout all of its range; or a species may be in danger of extinction or likely to become so throughout a significant portion of its range. The extremely uneven distribution of this cactus complicates estimates of the true population size (Service 2016, p. 21). on Thanks to a slew of partnerships among the Service, Texas agencies and local stakeholders, the Service downlisted the Tobusch fishhook cactus from endangered to threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Due to the drastic collapse of many large colonies from insect parasites, we require statistically rigorous estimates of metapopulation trends to project long-term viability. 136-137). Following publication of this final reclassification rule, funding for recovery actions will continue to be available from a variety of sources, including Federal budgets, State programs, and cost share grants for non-Federal landowners, the academic Start Printed Page 22400community, and nongovernmental organizations. 442-443). 307-308). We chose the intermediate timeframe of 2050 to 2074 for our projections of the species status in the foreseeable future because relatively few changes may be apparent in the earlier timeframe, and projection uncertainty is greatest in the later timeframe. Thorough surveys on public lands, such as State parks and highway rights-of-way, have detected groups of individuals, but since the vast majority of the surrounding private land has not been surveyed, we do not know if these are small, isolated populations, or parts of larger interacting populations or metapopulations. We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities involving threatened plants under certain circumstances. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Only a very small fraction of the potential habitat of Tobusch fishhook cactus occurs on state parks or other public lands where the habitat could be directly managed through regulatory mechanisms. Healthy pollinator populations, in turn, require intact, diverse, native plant communities. We received a total of five comments on the proposed rule; one from the State of Texas and four from the public. The Tobusch fishhook cactus, a small cactus armed with curved “fishhook” spines, is known to exist only on the Edwards Plateau of west-central Texas. The eggs hatch into larvae, which then feed on the inner cactus tissue, thereby killing the plant. “The steady recovery of this cactus and many other species demonstrates the remarkable power of the Endangered Species Act, which has prevented the extinction of 99 percent of protected species.”. Document page views are updated periodically throughout the day and are cumulative counts for this document. Additionally, S. brevihamatus ssp. The small cactus is a mere one inch tall or less, found in a tiny area in the extreme northwest corner of New Mexico and the extreme southwest corner of Colorado within 150 miles of the Four Corners region. We did not receive any requests for a public hearing. One influence on representation is genetic diversity, both within and among populations, that is necessary to conserve long-term adaptive capability (Shaffer and Stein 2000, pp. Finally, the breeding system of Tobusch fishhook cactus is primarily out-crossing, so populations with too little genetic diversity would produce fewer progeny. Way to save: Passing laws to keep the land development healthy enough for plants. Small populations are less able to recover from losses caused by random environmental changes (Shaffer and Stein 2000, pp. This rule becomes effective June 14, 2018. Comments and materials received, as well as supporting documentation used in the preparation of this rule, are available for public inspection, by appointment, during normal business hours at: U.S. Therefore, we define the foreseeable future for this threat to be a period of about 50 years. Out-crossing requires genetically diverse cactus populations within the foraging range of pollinators, and is less likely to occur in small, isolated populations. Four commenters were in favor of the proposed reclassification, and one commenter was in support of delisting Tobusch fishhook cactus. This table of contents is a navigational tool, processed from the publication in the future. In addition, pursuant to section 6 of the Act, the State of Texas will continue to be eligible for Federal funds to implement management actions that promote the protection or recovery of Tobusch fishhook cactus. establishing the XML-based Federal Register as an ACFR-sanctioned Below we present our analysis of threats to Tobusch fishhook cactus. We expect that abatement of these threats could not be overcome for one or more lifespans. documents in the last year, by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 67, 98; Sharma 2015, p. 1). Genetic diversity within a population can be measured by the numbers of variant forms of genes represented in that population. on FederalRegister.gov 1503 & 1507. Ants may be seed predators, dispersers, or both (Emmett 1995, pp. The Tobusch fishhook cactus is among another four species proposed for downlisting or delisting, including another Texas species — the black-capped vireo — along with grizzly bears in Yellowstone and Florida manatees. In addition, recent surveys conducted through Section 7 consultations and at preserves managed by The Nature Conservancy, that are not included in the TXNDD report, bring the total number of documented individuals to approximately 4,500. Following the listing of the cactus under the ESA in 1979, existing populations were protected and extensive research was conducted to better determine its range and population size. The current Tobusch fishhook cactus recovery plan was approved by the Service on March 18, 1987 (Service 1987). We conclude that small population sizes, low densities, and isolation of populations threaten the survival of Tobusch fishhook cactus. FWS-R2-ES-2016-0130 FXES11130900000 178 FF09E42000 … Under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act; 16 U.S.C. the current document as it appeared on Public Inspection on Riverside Carnivores 976 views. Fonteyn et al. Federal Register. We solicited peer review of the draft SSA Report from three objective and independent scientific experts, and considered their comments in finalization of the SSA Report. In Arizona, cactus rustling — stealing or killing the state’s iconic saguaros — is a felony. 2015, p. 449). Populations of these parasites increase rapidly in large, dense cactus colonies and have caused drastic declines in many of the larger populations (Calvert 2003, entire). We expect these threats to continue at least through the 2050 to 2074 projection period (described above), which we define as the foreseeable future for this threat. The cactus is the preferred host plant for this undescribed species of weevil (Gerstaeckeria sp.) The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows: Authority: 2. TOBUSCHII). The ultimate goal of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these listed species, so that they no longer need the protective measures of the Act. The President of the United States issues other types of documents, including but not limited to; memoranda, notices, determinations, letters, messages, and orders. tobuschii. 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