Previously the risk was considered low; a 2001 USDA pest risk assessment of this species’ importation from El Salvador to the USA found its potential as a weed to be negligible as “it has not been reported to have weedy characteristics” (Kahn and Lima, 2001), but it has since been listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as “casual alien, cultivation escape, garden thug, naturalised, weed” (Randall, 2012) and is known to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al, 2012). The species is capable of regenerating by both seeds and cuttings (Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014), and can thus spread through garden waste or plant parts sold for medicinal and culinary use. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, 24(Supplement):132-138. Flowering is initiated when plants are 2 or more years old. The species is distributed well beyond its native Mediterranean range as it is cultivated around the world for medicinal, culinary, and ornamental purposes as well as for its essential oils. Per serving, dried rosemary contains more vitamins and minerals than fresh rosemary. Tucson, USA: University of Arizona Press. Nigrospora oryzae and Gibberella pulicaris are recent disease records from Iran (Moshrefi Zarandi et al., 2014; Zarandi et al., 2014).Guzman (1999) states: “Rosemary has been reported to be attacked by Phytocoris rosmarini and Orthotylus ribesi in Spain and by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in India. Cancer. Determination of essential oil composition of Rosmarinus officinalis growing as exotic species in Kashmir Valley. http://plants.usda.gov/, Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Jacomassi E, Piedade L H, 1994. Plants with potential antifungal activity employed in Brazilian folk medicine. Essential oil of, http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder, Moshrefi-Zarandi, D, Rezaee, S, Aminaee, MM, Sharzei, A, 2014. Health store Holland & Barrett has reported a 187% increase in sales of rosemary oil in the past year. Reports of pests and diseases of R. officinalis are generally from where the plant is grown as a crop. Cat's Claw • London, UK: Cassell. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. The in vitro antibiofilm activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil against multiple antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas sp. In England, where the species has been popular since at least Tudor times, Rosemary was probably first introduced by the Romans, but according to tradition it was re-introduced by Queen Philippa of Hainault in the fourteenth century; a manuscript in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge claims that rosemary was unknown in England until the Countess of Hainault sent some to her daughter Queen Philippa (Rohde, 1930). Pregnant women who consume adequate folate may be less likely to have a child with birth defects. Early evidence in other studies suggest that taking just 750 mg of powdered rosemary leaves in tomato juice might improve memory speed in healthy, older adults. Industrial Crops and Products, 74:817-823. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669015301503. In Colombia it has been observed growing between 1500-2500 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), in the Andean regions of Ecuador between 2000-3000 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), in Bolivia between 2500-3500 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014), and in the Andean regions of Peru between 3000-3500 m (Peru Checklist, 2014). According to the UMMC, rosemary has been used to treat indigestion. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE, Zarandi D M, Aminaee M M, Sharzei A, Rezaee S, 2014. Rosemary that’s grown in the ground does not transplant to containers well, so consider growing it in a container that can be brought inside during the colder months. Potential for R. officinalis to become a weed was previously determined to be ‘negligible’ (Kahn and Lima, 2001) but risk of introduction for this species is now higher as it has since been reported as a cultivation escape, garden thug, and weed (Randall, 2012) and is known to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). The German Commission E, which tests the efficiency and safety of herbs, has approved rosemary for the treatment of dyspepsia. You may experience indigestion as heartburn, abdominal pain or pressure, or as belching -- a feeling of excessive gas. Saw Palmetto • In Portugal, for example, the plant was called ‘alecrirn’ a word derived from the Scandinavian ‘ellegren’, meaning ‘elfin-plant’, as folklore associated the plant with elves, and in Sicilian tales it was said that baby fairies slept in the rosemary flowers (Rohde, 1930). Studies on antifungal activity, including against plant pathogenic fungi, include Ozcan and Chalchat (2008), Pitarokili et al., (2008) and Matusinsky et al. Verbenone is the character-impact compound in rosemary; the pungent, camphoraceous odour and burning taste is attributed to borneol; the cooling and minty note to camphor; the fresh aroma to cineole; and the warm, piny scent to alpha-pinene. Rosemary, whether grown indoors or out, requires full sun. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. (Gorustovich et al., 1999), while the leafhopper Eupteryx decemnotata has recently been reported as causing damage in Poland. The plant reaches about 1.5-3 meters in height. The plant parts; flowers and leaves have an odor that is pungently aromatic and somewhat camphoraceous (camphor-like). 539 pp. Online Database. http://www.pfaf.org. One third of an ounce of dried rosemary can cost close to $4. Seedlings are likewise slow to develop, becoming a dense shrub with a diameter of 60 cm and a height of 90 cm only by the end of the second growing season. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp. Lavender • Mycobiology. Astragalus • Revista UNIMAR, 16(2):335-353. Bandara MS, Tanino KK, Acharya SN, 2007. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Feverfew • 502 [ed. It is said to be very beneficial for dry skin in skin-care products. The plant bears short racemes of small sea blue flowers appearing in early summer. It's probably not something in the water that's leading to the incredibly longevity of the residents. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Rosemary is one of those wonderful herbs that makes a beautiful ornamental plant as well as a versatile culinary seasoning. Rosemary beetle (Chrysolina americana) is a pest principally of R. officinalis and lavender (Lavandula officinalis) (Barclay and Mann, 2002; Mileck and Simala, 2010). Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Rosemary grows along the coast, in rock gardens, on banks as a ground cover, trailing over walls, as a hedge & of course in herb gardens. R. officinalis is native to the Mediterranean region, and was reportedly introduced into China around 220 AD where it is now cultivated (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Public Domain - CC0 1.0 - Released by Leo Michels/http://www.imagines-plantarum.de/. Plant in a sunny, sheltered position in well-drained soil – plants hate wet roots in winter. Common names for R. officinalis relate the species to various myths and folklore, as the plant has been known and used in many cultures since antiquity. Fruit composed of 4 subglobose to obovoid nutlets, about 2 mm long, glabrous and smooth (Guzman, 1999). Chasteberry • Learn how to grow rosemary indoors using hydroponics or in containers for the best results. 3.) Composition of the essential oil of spontaneous, http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, Ribeiro-Santos R, Carvalho-Costa D, Cavaleiro C, Costa HS, Albuquerque TG, Castilho MC, Ramos F, Melo NR, Sanches-Silva A, 2015. All varieties prefer full sun and most can tolerate slightly shady areas. Volumen VI. So, which other natural remedies may aid learning? However, taking higher doses may make memory worse. Stress. Some studies show that rosemary aromatherapy can improve the quality, but not the speed of memory, reports WebMD. In the remote village of Acciaroli in southwest Italy, about one in every 10 people is over 100 years old. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. However, the study was poorly designed, UMM points out, so researchers aren't sure if the rosemary was responsible for the hair growth. Kiran S, Bhanu Prakash, 2015. An erect, shrubby legume reaching 6 ft tall, Akapulko grows throughout the Philippines. Compendium record. Carnosic acid protects your brain from stroke and neurodegeneration -- the loss of structure or function of neurons -- that are caused by free radicals. Plants for a future. by Giberti G, Craker L, Lorenz M, Máthé A, Giulietti A]. Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses., Wallingford, UK. Traditionally, the herb has been used to ease muscle pain and spasm, support the circulatory and nervous systems, improve memory and stimulate hair growth, says the University of Maryland Medical Center. Moss has also studied sage. Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Ozcan MM, Chalchat JC, 2008. Oviedo-Prieto, R., Herrera-Oliver, P., Caluff, M.G., 2012. Dandelion • Fenugreek • Britton N L, 1918. 1.) When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. A novel insight on an ancient aromatic plant: the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Jacomassi E, Piedade LH, 1994. Kahn RP, Lima P, 2001. A monograph on the physiological properties of rosemary oil has been published by the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM). Furthermore, rosemary also contains carnosol which has been found to detoxify substances that can commence the breast-cancer process. There isn't a lot of scientific evidence that rosemary helps with problems like stomach upset, gas or indigestion. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. RA6425 classified marijuana as a prohibited drug, and detailed out punishments for the importation, sale, manufacture, cultivation, possession, and use of the drug, as well as possession of any drug-related paraphernalia. The following is taken from Guzman (1999): Seeds of rosemary are slow to germinate taking about 3-4 weeks before emerging from the soil. The following has been taken from Guzman (1999): “The fresh or dried leaves are excellent flavouring agents in vegetables, meat (particularly lamb, veal and roasted chicken), sauces, stews, herbal butters, cream soups, fruit salads, jams, biscuits and bread. Determination of essential oil composition of, http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, Zarandi DM, Aminaee MM, Sharzei A, Rezaee S, 2014. They tell us a lot of stories about how they themselves or their friends tried making the plant survive here in the country, and ultimately giving up on it. A spirit of Rosemary may be used, in doses of 30 drops in water or on sugar, as an antispasmodic. Adult men and women between 19 and 50 years old need 1,000 milligrams of calcium each day, and a tablespoon of dried rosemary supplies about 4.2 percent of this requirement. Rosemary contains two key ingredients -- rosemarinic acid and caffeic acid -- that are anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. In: Acta Horticulturae, No. In the Philippines, it is therefore grown in areas with a continuous cool (approximately 15 to 19°C) and dry period for almost a month and a warm and humid period after the trees have flowered. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN. Rosemary grows on loam soil with good drainage in an open, sunny position. A number of studies suggest that rosemary extract may prevent cancer cells from replicating, thereby stopping tumors from growing, reports UMM. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. Effect of geographical distributions on the phytochemical profile of methanolic extract of dried leaves of, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Garibaldi A, Minuto A, Gullino ML, 2005. Flora Europaea., Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 28th EFFoST International Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 25-28 November 2014. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Flora of Pakistan, 2014. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. by Giberti, G.\Craker, L.\Lorenz, M.\Máthé, A.\Giulietti, A.]. The species is known to be sedative, carminative, sudorific, cardiac stimulant, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, diuretic, digestive, antiseptic, and anti-spasmodic (Quattrocchi, 2012). Flowering tops and leaves are considered carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, aperient, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic and astringent. Muscle pains and aches. Rosemary stimulates flow of blood to the skin and blocks secondary infections. by Quattrocchi, U.]. “Sometimes we have found beneficial effects and sometimes we have not,” says Moss. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. This family includes some of the most well-known herbs containing essential oils, including lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano. Rosemary is easily propagated through cuttings, root division, and layering. View Harvest Select varieties; Foodie Fresh When inspiration grows all around you, you can’t help but create masterpieces. Following a report that the woody herb may improve memory, students have been seeking it out to give them the edge in exams. Researchers say that rosemary stimulates liver enzymes, which inactivate these hormones, notes the Pacific College of Oriental Medicine. Kava • Herbal Remedies and Medicinal Cures for Diseases, Ailments & Illnesses that afflict Humans and Animals Indigestion and other gastric issues. It will slowly suffer in heavy and moist clays, especially during winter. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (, Petiwala SM, Johnson JJ, 2015. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 585 pp. Rosemary is best started in the spring from ready-grown plants. Rosemary can survive in areas with mild winters, but not in localities where the temperature frequently falls below -3°C. by Tellman B]. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Aktaruzzaman M, Kim JoonYoung, Afroz T, Kim ByungSup, 2015. Antifungal and pesticidal effects of the essential oil of rosemary have been widely investigated. 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